Energy is a basic need and essential for the earth’s life. The increasing consumption of non-renewable energies such as fossil fuels has caused an adverse effect on eco-systems, causing pollution and global warming, leading to focusing on sustainable and renewable energy sources. Two crucial renewable energy sources are a significant focus in the 21st century for a clean and sustainable environment; solar and hydrogen fuel cells.

Solar cells use the light energy from the sun, whereas hydrogen fuel cells combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity. However, the cost and non-eco-friendly waste of constructing the solar cells and generating hydrogen has limited the scope of these renewable energy sources.

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