Over 80% of the manufactured product involves catalysis at some point during the processing.6 It is vital for economic and commercial success and environmental sustainability as it improves the use of resources and increases energy efficiency. In this regard, transition metal catalysts are widely used in modern synthesis due to their reaction diversity to enable various molecular transformations.

Various organometallic complexes are available in the literature to improve the reactivity and efficiency in hydrogenation, hydrosilylation, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, alkene polymerization, alkene oligomerization, hydrocarboxylation, methanol carbonylation, hydroformylation, and cross-coupling reaction.

Over the last 5 decades, cross-coupling reactions facilitated by the transition-metal catalysts have revolutionized organic synthesis and became vital synthetic tools for carbon-carbon bond formation and optimized in various ways to improve the efficiency and yield of the products under mild protocols.

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